Latest topics
» GUYS. "DOOD" IS HERE!
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups EmptyTue Nov 29, 2011 10:27 am by Karma

» Hi guys! Lalala
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups EmptyMon Nov 28, 2011 9:26 pm by Pukito

» ARGHHHrrhhghghg
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups EmptySun Nov 27, 2011 1:25 pm by Pukito

» [Flash Game] - I don't even
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups EmptySat Nov 26, 2011 11:08 pm by Karma

» Hi, nice to meet you.
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups EmptySat Nov 26, 2011 12:48 am by Pukito

» I think I see ..
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups EmptySat Nov 26, 2011 12:47 am by Pukito

» Where Karma goes...
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups EmptyFri Nov 25, 2011 2:14 am by Karma

» Guys
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups EmptyTue Nov 22, 2011 9:11 pm by Pukito

» Karmini's Pose
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups EmptyTue Nov 22, 2011 8:31 pm by Karma

» The Order (1)
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups EmptySat Nov 19, 2011 10:42 pm by Karma

May 2019
SunMonTueWedThuFriSat
   1234
567891011
12131415161718
19202122232425
262728293031 

Calendar Calendar


[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups

Go down

[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups Empty [OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups

Post by Alias on Tue Oct 11, 2011 3:46 pm

Lesson 2 - Basic Functional Groups?
Hi guys! In this lesson, I will just throw on a lot of pictures and words. These are some of the more important functional groups.. But not all the functional groups. It is usually a good idea to be able to recognize each of these structures. Only the basic nomenclature is listed here. There will be more detail in the following lessons. xD This is mainly a reference lesson I suppose.

Quick Jump (Click to go!)

Root Names
Legend (Symbols used in Pictures)
List of Functional Groups



Root Names
So here are some of the root names for nomenclature. These are used when naming the main root of the compound (The main functional group would add a suffix to these roots). These are also used when naming some substituents.

If it's a ....
1 Carbon Chain
Then the root name is...
Meth-

1 Carbon Chain
Meth-
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups Meth

2 Carbon Chain
Eth-
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups Eth

3 Carbon Chain
Prop-
C-C-C

4 Carbon Chain
But-
C-C-C-C

5 Carbon Chain
Pent-
C-C-C-C-C

6 Carbon Chain
Hex-
C-C-C-C-C-C

7 Carbon Chain
Hept-
C-C-C-C-C-C-C

8 Carbon Chain
Oct-
C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C

9 Carbon Chain
Non-
C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C

10 Carbon Chain
Dec-
C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C

.... And so on. (undec, dodec.. etc)


Back to top


Some of the symbols I will be using on my diagrams
  • R = Some attached chain that is usually some alkyl group attached to the main chain. Note, usually.

  • R' = Some other attached chain. Similar to R. All this means is that the two R's don't have to be the same thing.

  • R'' = Same as R', all it means is that the (R)'s don't have to be the same chain. An example is that R is really actually a single hydrogen. R' could easily be a single hydrogen as well, but it could also be a Carbon attached to three hydrogens (methyl). The reason R is used is because we're trying to be general here.

  • C = Carbon

  • H = Hydrogen

  • O = Oxygen (Red)

  • N = Nitrogen(Blue)

  • S = Sulphur (Yellow)

  • X = Halogen(Green)

  • + = Positively Charged

  • - = Negatively Charged

Sometimes I might just use colours. Anything that is not given a colour will probably be drawn in black.

Back to top


Listed in the order of increasing priority order:
(the higher priority groups are typically numbered so that they get the lowest number)
The starred names are the ones that should've been taught in a regular high school Chemistry class.

*Alkanes
Nitro
*Alkyl Halides/Haloalkanes
*Alkynes
*Alkenes
Sulphides
*Ethers
Amines
Thiols
*Alcohols
*Ketones
*Aldehydes
Nitriles
*Amides
Acyl Halides
*Esters
Acid Anhydrides
*Carboxylic Acids
Arenes (are not part of the priority list)

Back to top


Alkanes
  • As a main functional group, having an alkane attached will affect the root suffix by making it end with -ane (as in alk"ane")

Example: Methane, Butane

  • As an alkane substituent, it is usually called an "alkyl" group. (as in "alk"ane) Substituent groups are then named SOMETHING-yl. The something is replaced by "meth" or "eth".. depending on the substituent root.

Example: Methyl, Butyl

Back to top


Nitro
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups Nitro
Back to top


Alkyl Halides/Haloalkanes
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups Alkylhalide
Back to top


Alkynes
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups Alkyne
Back to top


Alkenes
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups Alkene
Back to top


Sulphides
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups Sulphide
Back to top


Ethers
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups Ether
Back to top


Amines
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups Amine
Back to top


Thiols
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups Thiol
Back to top


Alcohols
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups Alcohol
Back to top


Ketones
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups Ketone
Back to top


Aldehydes
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups Aldehyde
Back to top


Nitriles
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups Nitrile
Back to top


Amides
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups Amide
Back to top


Acyl Halides
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups Acylhalide
Back to top


Esters
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups Ester
Back to top


Acid Anhydrides
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups Acidanhydride
Back to top


Carboxylic Acids
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups Carboxylicacid
Back to top


Arenes (are not part of the priority list)
[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups Arene
Back to top

Alias
Alias
Beggar
Beggar

Posts : 26
Monies : 4134
Reputation : 0
Join date : 2011-09-30

View user profile

Back to top Go down

Back to top


 
Permissions in this forum:
You cannot reply to topics in this forum